Florigraphy

Language of Flowers

Language of flowers dates back to the early Chinese dynasties. Selam, the Oriental Language of Flowers, was introduced into Europe by Charles II, King of Sweden, after 5 years of exile in the Ottoman Empire, in 1714. His courtiers began promoting the Flower Language. In 1718 Lady Mary Wortly Montagu, wife of the ambassador to Constantinople became fascinated with the coded messages used by the Turkish harems and introduced it to the UK. The first book on Language of Flowers was in 1809. Queen Victoria was so fascinated by the language of flowers that she spread the tradition around the British Empire and sometime spoke in the language of flowers when describing the affairs of her daughter’s heart, and perhaps in other areas as well. Young women studied botany and florigraphy and there were more than 400 flower language dictionaries.

Flowers adorned everything in the Victorian Era; clothes, hats, hair, lapels, calling cards, picture frames, brooches, stationery, pressed flower cards, and more. Tussie Mussies (small, hand held bouquets) were designed to convey meanings. The menaings are or were based on ancient symbolic correlations taken from Chinese, Japanese, Middle Eastern, Greek, and Roman cultures, mythologies, and religions; possibly based on the actual physical description of the plants themselves — a distinguishing characteristic of the root, stem, leaf, bloom, or seed. One of the most frequently mentioned sources is the Turkish, Oriental, or Persian language of flowers or objects, referred to as the selam, which was in fact a system of memorization.

In Turkish, for example, the flowers were a mnemonic where the flower rhymed with standard lines of poetry so the poem could be easily recalled. This is a method whereby steampunks could send secret messages as well, either in a LARP or just because. Someone (or perhaps many someones) could write their own group florigraphical dictionaries – it’s certainly a very Victorian thing to do – they had over 400 floral dictionaries!

The following list is a compilation of approximately 30 of them. Not every flower is listed here, and in some dictionaries, the meanings will be different. Feel free to design your own florigraphical dictionary!

Bibliography:
Connolly, Shane. The Secret Language of Flowers, New York: Rizzoli International, 2004.
Edgarton, Miss S. C. The Flower Vase: Containing The Language of Flowers and Their Poetic Sentiments, Boston: Samual M. Dickinson, 1843.
Greenaway, Kate. Language of Flowers, London: George Routledge and Sons, 1864.
Hale, Sarah. Flora’s Interpreter, and Fortuna Flora, Boston: Benjamin B. Mussey and Company, 1850.
Lehner, Ernst. Folklore and symbolism of flowers, plants and trees, New York: Tudor Publishing Co. 1960.
Miller, Thomas. The Romance of Nature; or the Poetical Language of Flowers, New York: J.C. Riker, 1860
Powell, Claire. The Meaning of Flowers, Boulder, Colorado: Shambhala Publications, 1979.
Seaton, Beverly. The Language of Flowers, a history, Charlottesville and London: University Press of Virginia, 1995. Note – Five classic flower sentiments vocabularies are included in this reference: Latour, Le langage des fleurs; Delachenaye, Abecedaire de Flore ou langage des fleurs; Shoberl, The Language of Flowers; with illustrative poetry; Phillips, Floral Emblems; Wirt, Flora’s Dictionary.

Abatina
Fickleness

Acacia
Friendship

Acacia, Rose or White
Elegance

Acacia, Yellow
Secret Love

Acanthus
The arts

Achillea Millefolia
War

Aconite (Wolfsbane)
Misanthropy

Adonis (Pheasant’s Eye)
Sorrowful remembrance

Agrimony
Thankfulness, Gratitude

Allspice
Compassion

Almond, Common
Indiscretion

Almond, Flowering
Hope

Aloe
Grief, Sorrow

Althaea Frutex
(Syrian Mallow,
Rose of Sharon)
Consumed by Love

Alyssum, Sweet
Worth beyond beauty

Amaranth, Globe
Unchangeable

Amaranthus
(Love Lies Bleeding)
Hopeless, heartless

Amaryllis
Pride, Splendid Beauty

Amethyst
Admiration

Anemone, Garden
Forsaken

Angelica
Inspiration

Angrec
Royalty

Apple
Temptation

Apple Blossom
Preference

Arbor Vitae
Unchanging friendship

Artemisia
Absence

Arum (Wake Robin)
Ardour

Ash Tree
Grandeur

Aspen Tree
Lamentation

Asphodel
My regrets follow you
to the grave

Aster, China
Variety

Aster, Double
I share your sentiments

Aster, Single
I will think of it

Auricula
Painting

Auricula, Scarlet
Avarice

Austurtium
Splendour

Azalea
Temperance

Bachelor’s Buttons
(Corn Flower)
Delicacy

Balm
Sympathy

Balm of Gilead
Cure. Relief

Balsam, Red
Touch me not,
Impatient resolves

Balsam, Yellow
Impatient

Barberry
Sourness of Temper

Basil
Hatred

Bay Leaf
I change but in death

Bay Tree
Glory

Bay Tree (Laurel)
Sharpness

Bay Wreath
Reward of merit

Bearded Crepis
Protection
Beech Tree
Prosperity

Belladonna
(Nightshade, Deadly)
Silence

Belvedere
I declare war against you

Betony
Surprise
Bilberry
Treachery

Bindweed, Great
Inspiration

Bindweed, Small
Humility

Birch
Meekness

Birdsfoot Trefoil
Revenge

Bittersweet (Nightshade, Woody)
Truth

Black Poplar
Courage

Blackthorn
Difficulty

Bladder Nut Tree
Frivolity, Amusement
Blue-flowered Greek Valerian
Rupture

Bluebell
Constancy

Box Tree
Stoicism, Constancy

Bramble
Remorse

Branch of Currants
You please all

Broom
Humility, Neatness

Buckbean
Calm repose

Bugloss
Falsehood

Bulrush
Indiscretion, Docility

Burdock
Importunity, Touch me not

Burgundy
Unconscious beauty

Buttercup (Kingcup)
Ingratitude, Childishness,
Desire for riches

Butterfly Weed
Let me go

Cactus
Endurance

Calla
Magnificent beauty

Calycanthus
Benevolence

Camellia Japonica, Red
Unpretending excellence

Camellia Japonica, White
Perfected loveliness

Canary Grass
Perseverance

Candytuft, Everflowering
Indifference

Canterbury Bell
Constancy

Cardamine
Paternal error

Cardinal Flower
Distinction

Carnation, Mixed Colors
Pride & Beauty,
Health & Energy

Carnation, Pink
I Will Always Remember You

Carnation, Red
Pure Love

Carnation, Striped
Maybe, indecision

Carnation, White
Endearment

Carnation, Yellow
No!

Caspia
Consistency

Catchfly
Snare

Cedar
Strength

Cedar of Lebanon
Incorruptible

Celandine, Lesser
Joys to come

Centaury
Delicacy

Chamomile
Energy in adversity

Cherry Blossom
Spirituality, Beauty

Cherry Tree
Good education

Cherry Tree, White
Deception

Chervil
Sincerity

Chestnut Tree
Do me justice, Luxury

Chickweed
Rendezvous

Chickweed, Mouse eared
Ingenuous simplicity

Chicory
Frugality

Chrysanthemum, Chinese
Cheerfulness under adversity

Chrysanthemum, Red
I Love

Chrysanthemum, Yellow
Slighted love

Cinquefoil
Maternal affection,
beloved daughter

Circaea
Fascination

Citron
Ill-natured beauty, sadness

Clematis
Mental beauty, Art

Clematis, Evergreen
Poverty

Clotbur
Rudeness, Pertinacity

Clover, Four-leaved
Be mine

Clover, Red
Industry

Clover, White
Think of me

Cloves
Dignity

Cobaea
Gossip

Cockle
Gentility

Cockscomb, Celosia
Foppery, Affectation, Singularity

Colchicum
My best days are past

Coltsfoot
(Tussilage, sweet-scented)
Justice shall be done

Columbine
Folly

Columbine, Purple
Resolved to win

Columbine, Red
Anxious and trembling

Convolvulus
Bonds

Convolvulus, Pink
Worth sustained by judicious
and tender affection

Convolvulus. Major
Extinguished hopes

Corchorus
Impatient of absence

Coreopsis
Always cheerful

Coreopsis Arkansa
Love at first sight

Coriander
Concealed merit

Corn
Riches

Corn Flower
(Bachelor’s Buttons)
Delicacy

Corn Straw
Agreement

Corn Straw, Broken
Quarrel

Cornel
Durability

Coronella
Success crown your wishes

Cowslip, American
Divine beauty,
ou are my divinity

Cranberry
Hardiness

Crepe Myrtle
Eloquence

Cress
Stability

Crocus
Abuse not

Crocus, Saffron
Mirth

Crocus, Spring
Youthful gladness

Crowfoot
Ingratitude

Crowfoot, Aconite-leaved
Lustre

Crown Imperial
Majesty, Power

Crowsbill
Envy

Cuckoo Plant
Ardour

Cudweed American
Unceasing remembrance

Currant
You please all

Cuscuta
Meanness
Cyclamen
Diffidence

Cypress
Death, Mourning,
Despair

Dahlia
Dignity, Instability, My gratitude exceeds your care

Daisy
Innocence

Daisy, Garden
I share your sentiments

Daisy, Michaelmas
Farewell, Afterthought

Daisy, Parti-Coloured
Beauty

Daisy, Wild
I will think of it

Daphne Odora
Desire to please,
Sweets to the sweet

Darnel (Ray Grass)
Vice

Datura
Deceitful Charms

Delphinium
(Larkspur, Double)
Haughtiness

Dew Plant
A serenade

Dittany of Crete
Birth

Dittany of Crete, White
Passion

Dodder of Thyme
Baseness, Meanness

Dodecatheon
You are my divinity

Dogsbane
Deceit, Falsehood

Dogwood
Durability

Dragon Plant
Snare

Dragonswort
Horror

Eglantine (European Sweetbrier)
Poetry, I wound to heal
Elder
Zealousness

Elm
Dignity

Elm, American
Patriotism
Enchanter’s Nightshade
Witchcraft, Sorcery
Endive
Frugality

Everlasting
Never-ceasing
remembrance

Fennel
Worthy of all praise,
Strength

Fern
Sincerity

Fern, Flowering
Reverie
Fern, Maidenhair
Discretion, Secrecy
Ficoides (Ice Plant)
Your looks freeze me

Fig Tree
Prolific

Filbert
Reconciliation

Fir
Elevation

Flax
Fate. I feel your kindness

Flax, Dried
Industry, Utility

Forget-Me-Not
True love,
Forget me not

Foxglove
A Wish, Insincerity
Frankincense
Faithful heart
Fraxinella
Fire
Fritillary, Chequered
Persecution
Frog Ophrys
Disgust

Fuchsia
Taste

Fumitory
Hatred

Galega
Reason

Galirum
Patience

Gentian, Yellow
Ingratitude

Geranium
Gentility, Esteem

Geranium, Apple-Scented
Present preference

Geranium, Crane’s Bill
Envy

Geranium, Dark
Melancholy

Geranium, Fish
Disappointed expectation

Geranium, Ivy
Bridal favour, Your hand
for the next dance

Geranium, Lemon Scented
Unexpected meeting

Geranium, Nutmeg Scented
Expected meeting

Geranium, Oak-leaved
True friendship

Geranium, Penciled
Ingenuity

Geranium, Rose-scented
Preference

Geranium, Scarlet
Comforting, Stupidity

Geranium, Silver-leaved
Recall

Geranium, Wild
Steadfast piety

Gilly-flower
Bonds of affection,
Lasting beauty

Glasswort
Pretension

Gloryflower
Glorious beauty

Glycine
Your friendship
is agreeable
and pleasing to me

Goldenrod
Precaution,
Encouragement

Gooseberry
Anticipation

Gourd
Extent, Bulkiness

Grape, Wild
Charity, Mirth

Grass
Submission, Utility

Hand Flower Tree
Warning

Harebell
Submission, Grief

Hawkweed
Quick sightedness

Hawthorn
Hope

Hazel
Reconciliation, Peace

Heart’s Ease (Pansy)
Pleasant thoughts,
Think of me

Heath
Solitude

Heather, White
Good luck

Helenium
Tears

Heliotrope
Devotion, Faithfulness

Hellebore
Scandal, Calumny

Helmet Flower
(Monkshood)
Chivalry, Knight-errantry

Hemlock
You will be my death

Hemp
Fate

Henbane
Imperfection

Hepatica
Confidence

Hibiscus (Mallow)
Delicate beauty,
Sweet disposition

Holly
Foresight,
Domestic happiness

Holly Herb
Enchantment

Hollyhock
Ambition, Fecundity

Honesty
Honesty, Sincerity

Honey Flower (Melianthus)
Love sweet and secret

Honeysuckle
Bonds of love, Generous and devoted affection

Honeysuckle, Coral
The colour of my fate

Honeysuckle, French
Rustic beauty

Honeysuckle, Wild
Inconsistency

Hop
Injustice

Hornbeam
Ornament

Horse Chestnut
Luxury

Hortensia (Hydrangea)
You are cold, A Boaster, Heartlessness

Houseleek
Vivacity,
Domestic industry

Houstonia
Content

Hoya
Sculpture

Hyacinth
Sport, Game, Play

Hyacinth, Blue
Constancy

Hyacinth, White
Unobtrusive loveliness

Hydrangea (Hortensia)
A boaster, Heartlessness,
You are cold

Hyssop
Cleanliness

Ice Plant
Your Looks Freeze Me

Iris
I Have a Message for You

Ivy
Friendship, Fidelity, Marriage

Jacob’s Ladder
Come down to me

Japonica, Pyrus
Fairies’ Fire

Jasmine or Jessamine
You are cheerful and graceful

Jasmine, Cape
Transport of joy,
I am too happy

Jasmine, Carolina
Amiability

Jasmine, Indian
I attach myself to you, Attachment

Jasmine, Spanish
Sensuality

Jasmine, White
Amiability

Jasmine, Yellow
Grace and elegance

Jonquil
I desire a return
of affection

Judas Tree
Unbelief, Betrayal

Juniper
Succour, Protection

Justicia
The perfection of female loveliness

Kennedia
Mental beauty

Kingcup
Desire for riches

Laburnum
Pensive beauty

Lady’s Slipper
Capricious beauty

Lagerstroemia, Indian
(Crepe Myrtle)
Eloquence

Lantana
Rigour

Larch
Audacity, Boldness

Larkspur
Lightness, Levity

Larkspur, Double
(Delphinium)
Haughtiness

Larkspur, Single
Fickleness

Laurel (Bay Tree)
Glory

Laurel, Cherry
Perfidy

Laurel, Ground
Perseverance

Laurel, Mountain
Ambition

Laurestina (Libernum)
I die if neglected

Lavender*
Distrust

Leaves, Dead
Sadness

Lemon
Zest

Lemon Blossoms
Discretion

Lettuce
Coldheartedness

Libernum (Laurestina)
I die if neglected

Lichen
Solitude

Lilac, Field
Humility

Lilac, Purple
First emotions of love

Lilac, White
Majesty, Purity, Innocence

Lily
Beauty, Elegance, Sweetness

Lily of the Valley
Return of happiness

Lily, Day
Coquetry

Lily, White
Purity, Sweetness

Lime or Linden Tree
Conjugal fidelity

Lint
I feel my obligations

Liquorice, Wild
I declare against you

Live Oak
Liberty

Liverwort
Confidence

Lobelia, Cardinalis
Distinctive

Locust Tree
Elegance

Locust Tree (green)
Affection beyond
the grave

London Pride
Frivolity

Loosestrife (Lythrum)
Pretension

Lotus
Eloquence

Lotus Leaf
Recantation

Love in a Mist
(Nigelia, Money Plant)
Perplexity

Love Lies Bleeding
(Amaranthus)
Hopeless, not heartless

Lucern
Life

Lupine
Voraciousness,
Imagination

Lychnis
Religious enthusiasm

Lythrum (Loosestrife)
Pretension
*Primary sentiment for “lavender” is based in the superstition that poisonous asps live under
lavender plants; therefore, “distrust” lavender plants. This is probably the most extreme
example of a flower sentiment that is not really associated the actual flower blossom.

Madder
Calumny

Magnolia, Grandeflora
Dignity, Love of Nature

Mallow, (Hibbiscus)
Delicate Beauaty,
Sweet disposition

Mallow, Marsh
Beneficence

Mallow, Syrian
(Rose of Sharon)
Consumed by love, Persuasion

Mallow, Venetian
Delicate beauty

Manchineal
Falsehood

Mandrake
Rarity

Maple
Reserve

Marigold
Despair, Grief

Marigold, African
Uneasiness

Marigold, Fig
Idleness

Marigold, French
Jealousy

Marigold, Prophetic
Prediction

Marjoram
Blushes, Delusion, Illusion

Marvel of Peru
Timidity

Meadow Lychnis
Wit

Meadowsweet
Uselessness

Melianthus (Honey Flower)
Love sweet and secret

Moschatel
Weak but winning

Moss
Maternal Love

Mercury
Goodness

Mesembryanthemum
Idleness

Mezereon
Desire to please, Timidity

Mignionette
Your qualities surpass
your charms

Milfoil
War

Milkvetch
Your presence softens
my pains

Milkwort
Hermitage

Mimosa (Sensitive Plant)
Sensitive, Bashful, Modesty

Mint
Virtue

Mistletoe
I surmount all difficulties

Mock Orange
Counterfeit

Money Plant
(Love in a mist, Nigelia)
Perplexity

Monkshood (Helmet Flower)
Chivalry, Knight-errantry

Moonflower
Night, Instability

Moonwort
Forgetfulness

Morning Glory
Night, Instability

Morning Glory, Red
Attachment

Motherwort
Concealed love

Mountain Ash
Prudence

Mourning Bride
Unfortunate attachment,
I have lost all

Mouse-eared Chickweed
Ingenuous simplicity

Mouse-eared
Scorpion Grass
Forget me not

Moving Plant
Agitation

Mudwort
Tranquility

Mugwort
Happiness

Mulberry Tree, Black
I shall not survive you

Mulberry Tree, White
Wisdom

Mullein
Health, Good Nature

Mushroom
Suspicion

Musk Plant
Weakness

Mustard Seed
Indifference

Myrobalan
Privation

Myrrh
Gladness

Myrtle
Love

Narcissus
Egotism

Nasturtium
Patriotism

Nettle Tree
Concert

Nettle, Burning
Slander

Nigelia (Money Plant,
Love in a mist)
Perplexity

Night Convolvulus
Night

Night-blooming Cereus
Transient beauty

Nightshade, Bittersweet, (Woody)
Truth

Nightshade, Deadly (Belladonna)
Silence

Nightshade, Enchanter
Witchcraft, Sorcery, Skepticism

Nosegay
Gallantry

Oak Leaves
Bravery

Oak Tree
Hospitality

Oak, White
Independence

Oats
The witching soul of music

Oleander (Rosebay)
Beware

Olive Branch
Peace

Orange Blossom
Woman’s Worth, Bridal festivities

Orange Tree
Sweetness, Generosity

Orchid
A Belle, Beauty,
Luxury, Fragrance

Orchid, Bee
Industry

Orchid, Butterfly (Phalaeonophis)
Gaiety

Orchid, Cattleya
Mature Charms

Orchid, Slipper
Capricious Beauty

Oregano
Birth

Osier
Frankness

Osmunda
Dreams

Ox Eye (Buphthalmum)
Patience

Palm
Victory

Pansy (Heart’s Ease)
Pleasant Thoughts,
Think of me

Pansy, Purple
You occupy my thoughts

Pansy, Yellow and Purple Mixed
Forget me not

Parsley
Festivity

Pasque Flower (Pulsatilla)
You have no claims, Unpretentious

Passion Flower
Faith, Belief

Pea, Everlasting
An appointed meeting,
Lasting pleasure

Pea, Sweet
Departure, Delicate pleasures

Peach
Your qualities, like your charms, are unequalled

Peach Blossom
I am your captive

Pear
Affection

Pear Tree
Comfort

Pennyroyal
Flee away

Peony
Shame, Bashful

Peony, Pink
Shame, Bashful

Peony, Red
Devotion

Peppermint
Warmth and cordiality

Periwinkle, Blue
Early friendship

Periwinkle, White
Pleasures of memory

Persicaria
Restoration

Persimmon
Bury me amid
nature’s beauties

Peruvian Heliotrope
Devotion

Pheasant’s Eye (Adonis)
Sorrowful Remembrance

Phlox
Unanimity

Pimpernel, Scarlet
Change, Assignation

Pine, Black
Pity, Boldness

Pine, Pitch
Philosophy

Pine, Spruce
Hope in adversity

Pineapple
You are Welcome,
You are Perfect

Pineapple, Mini
Welcome!

Pink (Dianthus)
Boldness

Pink, China
Aversion

Pink, Double Indian
Always lovely

Pink, Mountain
Aspiring

Pink, Red
Pure and ardent love

Pink, Variegated
Refusal

Pink, White
Ingeniousness, Talent

Plane Tree
Genius

Plum Tree
Keep your promise

Plum Tree, Wild
Independence

Plum, Indian
Privation

Poinsettia
Be of good cheer

Polyanthus
Pride of riches

Polyanthus, Crimson
The heart’s mystery

Polyanthus, Lilac
Confidence

Pomegranate
Foolishness

Pomegranate Flower
Mature elegance

Poplar, Black
Courage

Poplar, White
Time

Poppy, Red
Consolation

Poppy, Scarlet
Fantastic extravagance

Poppy, White
Sleep, My Antidote

Potato Plant
Benevolence

Prickly Pear
Satire

Pride of China
(China Berry)
Dissension

Primrose
Young Love, Early youth,
I can’t live without you

Primrose, Evening
Inconstancy

Primrose, Lilac
Confidence

Primrose, Red
Unpatronized merit

Privet
Prohibition

Pulsatilla (Pasque Flower)
You have no claims,
Unpretentious

Ragged Robin
Wit

Ranunculus
You are radiant,
I am dazzled by your charms

Ranunculus, Wild
Ingratitude

Raspberry
Remorse

Reed, Flowering
Confidence in Heaven

Reed, Flowering
Confidence in Heaven

Reed, Split
Indiscretion

Reeds (with their panicles),
Bundle of
Complaisance, Music

Rhododendron, Rosebay
Danger, Beware

Rhubarb
Advice

Rocket
Rivalry

Rose
Beauty

Rose of Sharon,
(Syrian Mallow, Althaea)
Consumed by love

Rose, Austrian
Thou art all that is lovely

Rose, Bridal
Happy love

Rose, Cabbage
Ambassador of love

Rose, China
Beauty always new

Rose, Damask
Brilliant complexion,
Freshness

Rose, Dog
Pleasure and pain

Rose, Full-blown
(placed over two buds)
Secrecy
Rose, Guelder
Winter, Age

Rose, Hundred-leaved
Pride, Dignity of mind

Rose, Hundred-leaved
Pride, Dignity of mind

Rose, Dog
Pleasure and pain

Rose, Full-blown
(placed over two buds)
Secrecy

Rose, Guelder
Winter, Age

Rose, Hundred-leaved
Pride, Dignity of mind

Rose, Japan
Beauty is your only attraction

Rose, Maiden Blush
If you love me,
you will find it out

Rose, Moss
Voluptuousness,
Superior merit

Rose, Multiflora
Grace

Rose, Mundi
Variety, You are merry

Rose, Musk
Capricious beauty

Rose, Musk (cluster)
Charming

Rose, Pink
Friendship, Happiness

Rose, Red
Love

Rose, White
I am worthy of you

Rose, White (withered)
Transient impressions

Rose, White and Red (together)
Unity

Rose, Wild
Simplicity

Rose, Yellow
Forgive & Forget

Rosebay Rhododendron
Danger, Beware

Rosebud, Moss
Confession of devotion

Rosebud, Red
Purity, Love

Rosemary
Remembrance

Roses, Crown or Wreath
of Reward of virtue

Rudbeckia
Justice

Rue
Disdain

Rue, Goats
Reason

Rushes
Calm, Docility

Rye Grass
Changeable disposition

Saffron
Beware of excess

Saffron, Crocus
Mirth

Saffron, Meadow
My happiest days are past

Sage
Esteem, Health

Sainfoin
Agitation

Saint John’s Wort
Animosity, Superstition

Sardony
Irony

Saxifrage, Mossy
Affection

Scabious
Widowhood, Mourning

Sedum
Tranquility

Sensitive Plant (Mimosa)
Sensitive, Bashful, Modesty

Senvy
Indifference

Shamrock
Light heartedness

Snakesfoot
Horror

Snapdragon
Presumption

Snowball
Bound

Snowdrop
Consolation, Hope

Solomon’s Seal
Secret, Discretion

Sorrel
Parental affection

Sorrel, Wild
Wit ill-timed

Sorrel, Wood
Joy, Maternal tenderness

Southernwood
Jest, Bantering

Spearmint
Warmth of sentiment

Speedwell
Fidelity

Speedwell, Germander
Facility

Speedwell, Spiked
Semblance

Spider Ophrys
Adroitness

Spiderwort
Esteem not love,
Momentary happiness

Spindle Tree
Your charms are engraved
on my heart

Star of Bethlehem
Reconciliation, Purity

Statice Sinuata
Loyalty

Stephanotis
Marital bliss

Stock
Bonds of affection

Stonecrop
Tranquility

Straw
Union

Straw, Broken
Rupture of contract, Dissension

Strawberry
Perfect goodness

Strawberry Tree
Esteem

Sumach, Venice
Splendour

Sunflower, Dwarf
Admiration, Gratitude

Sunflower, Tall
Pride, Appreciation

Sweet Pea
Delicate pleasures,
Departure

Sweet William
Gallantry, A smile

Sweetbrier, American
Simplicity

Sweetbrier, European
Poetry

Sweetbrier, Yellow
Decrease of love

Sycamore
Curiosity

Syringa
Memory

Syringa, Carolina
Disappointment

Tamarisk
Crime

Tansy, Wild
Resistance,
I declare against you

Teasel, Fuller’s
Misanthropy

Thistle
Austerity, Intrusion

Thorn Apple
Deceitful charms

Thorn, Evergreen
Solace in adversity

Thorns, Branch of
Severity

Thrift
Sympathy

Thyme
Activity

Trefoil, Birdsfoot
Revenge

Tremella Nestoc
Resistance

Trillium Pictum
Modest beauty

Truffle
Surprise

Trumpet Flower
Fame

Trumpet Flower, ash-leaved
Separation

Tuberose
Dangerous pleasures,
Voluptuousness

Tulip, striped
Beautiful eyes

Tulip, Yellow
Hopeless love

Tulips, All Colors
Love, Fame

Tulips, red
Declaration of Love

Turnip
Charity

Tussie Mussie
Fragrance remembered

Tussilage, sweet-scented, (Coltsfoot)
Justice shall be
done to you

Valerian, Blue-Flowered Greek
Rupture

Valerian, Red
An accommodating disposition

Venice Sumach
Splendour

Venus’ Car
Fly with me

Venus’ Looking-glass
Flattery

Venus’ Trap
Deceit

Verbena (Vervain)
Enchantment, Sensibility

Vernal Grass
Poor, but happy

Veronica (Speedwell)
Fidelity

Vervain (Verbena)
Enchantment, Sensibility

Vetch
I cling to you

Viburnum (Laurestina)
I die if neglected

Violet, Blue
Love, Faithfulness

Violet, White
Candor, Innocence

Violet, Yellow
Rural happiness

Volkamenia
May you be happy

Wake Robin (Arum)
Ardour

Wall-flower
Fidelity in adversity

Walnut
Intellect

Water Lily
Eloquence, Purity of heart

Wax Plant
Susceptibility

Wheat
Riches and Prosperity

Willow
Forsaken

Willow, French
Bravery and humanity

Willow, Water
Frankness, Freedom

Willow, Weeping
Mourning

Willow-Herb, spiked
Pretension

Winter Cherry
Deception

Witch Hazel
A spell

Wolfsbane (Aconite)
Misanthropy

Wormwood
Absence

Yarrow (Milfoil)
War

Yew
Sorrow

Zephyr Flower
Expectation

Zinnia
Thoughts of
absent friends

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